Advocates across the country are fighting against barriers to healthcare for people seeking mental health treatment. The IMD exclusion (explanation in the OP-ED) continues to eliminate the stability period that is necessary for many people with serious mental illness. Let’s continue to ask for reforms to the IMD exclusion rule; waivers are not enough.

Laurie Goldstein- ACMI Vice President

Congress must stop blocking mental health clinics from needed money

By Cheryl Roberts

New York Daily News

Jan 24, 2023 at 5:00 am

Newly elected Congressman Dan Goldman’s announcement about reintroducing the Michelle Alyssa Go Act is welcomed news. The Act, named after Michelle Go, the young woman pushed to her death in front of a subway train by Martial Simon, a homeless man with serious mental illness, would amend the decades old federal rule at the root of our broken mental health system.

The Institutions of Mental Disease or “IMD Rule” was enacted in 1965 as part of the Social Security Act and denies Medicaid to patients admitted to psycho-therapeutic facilities with more than 16 beds including hospitals, nursing homes and community or so-called congregate care facilities. By restricting federal Medicaid dollars to small residential institutions, Congress rightly figured that service providers would never achieve “scale,” making it impossible for IMD providers to break even, let alone make a responsible profit.

Instead, Congress hoped that by funding community services and eliminating large asylums, poor people with serious mental illness would be served elsewhere, and they have been — in prisons, jails and at the undertakers.

Michelle Go (left) and Martial Simon
Michelle Go (left) and Martial Simon

The need for more psychiatric beds whether in-patient or congregate care, is an uncomfortable fact that some would rather ignore, a luxury not possible for parents like Teresa and Dan Pasquini, sisters like Hilary de Vries, or members of Michelle Go’s family.

Like it or not, some people living with serious mental illness would do better having access to financially viable, reasonably sized congregate care residential facilities located close to family and loved ones. Yet for many people, this community-based option has been off the table for nearly 60 years because of the IMD Rule. Without this option and others, including in-patient hospitalization and residential facilities where residents are not completely at liberty to come and go, the much heralded “continuum of care” is not achievable, at least not for everyone.

There is no better proof of this reality and the need for a range of such facilities, than the fact that over the same time period, many of these options have been available to those who can afford private pay residential and in-patient facilities. This reality demonstrates that IMDs above 16 beds are not inherently bad, we just don’t want to pay for good ones, at least not for poor people. Instead, we have stood by and watched as our prisons and jails filled up with poor people living with mental illness, especially Black and Brown people, who landed in the criminal justice system after the mental health system failed them, their loved ones and the innocent victims and their families.

Ironically, in the end, the IMD fundamentally undercut the gold standard of our mental health care system: ensuring access to community-based mental health services as part of a broad continuum of care. By drawing a crude line in the sand at 16 beds for all IMDs, Congress over-simplified both the problem and the solution needed to address the very real concerns associated with the large, underfunded snake-pit mental health asylums of old.

As Goldman reintroduces legislation to amend the IMD Rule, rather than seeking a wholesale repeal of the rule, the amendments should be drawn with more precision. Otherwise, not only will complete repeal of the IMD be dead on arrival due to its high cost, it will also unnecessarily raise real concerns about the government’s ability to control very large scale asylums and prevent some of the abuses of the past.

Rather, instead of once again taking a crude, one size fits all approach to Medicaid funding for mental health treatment, Congress should create different bed limitations for different kinds of facilities. For example, members might find that 36-bed congregate care facilities would be both humane for clients and financially viable for service providers. Similarly, raising the legal bed capacity for in-patient psychiatric hospitals to 100 or 150 might enable New York City’s public Health + Hospitals to offer high quality, safe, therapeutic and humane options for New Yorkers in need of that level of care.

Not only would extending the continuum of care be the humane option for those living with serious mental illness and their families, but it would also improve public safety and save money by preventing people with serious mental illness from entering into the criminal justice system in the first place.

It’s time for Congress to get this one right. To be thoughtful but to delay no longer. Michelle Go and Martial Simon deserved better, so did their loved ones.

Roberts is a part-time City Court judge in Hudson, N.Y., where she presides over the Mental Health Court and is the executive director of the Greenburger Center for Social and Criminal Justice.

The first Tuesday of each month from 4-6 pm Arizona time, except for holiday weekends, ACMI will have a featured guest that will discuss a relevant Behavioral Health topic; after the speaker, we will have discussions with attendees on current issues with the Behavioral Health System.

“Autism in Adults: What does that look like, and what to do about it” by Dr. Christopher Smith

Dr. Christopher J. Smith is an experimental psychologist with expertise in diagnosing autism spectrum disorder and measuring associated traits. Dr. Smith oversees all diagnostic evaluations and assessments for our clients while also directing all internal and external research projects. Prior to joining us at SARRC, he worked as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, where he still maintains a faculty position. Originally drawn to study autism because of the complexity of the disorder, here at SARRC, Dr. Smith values the ability to work with clients across all age groups and engage in out-of-the-box research endeavors.

Topic: ACMI Stakeholder’s Meeting

Time: February 7th,, 2023 04:00 PM Arizona

Every month on the First Tuesday until December, 25th, 2023,

March 7th, 2023 04:00 PM

April 4th, 2023 04:00 PM

May 6th, 2023 04:00 PM

June 6th, 2023 04:00 PM

July 11th, 04:00 PM

August 1st, 04:00 PM

Please download and import the following iCalendar (.ics) files to your calendar system.

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Join Zoom Meeting

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Meeting ID: 863 1776 0372

Passcode: 795774

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Meeting ID: 863 1776 0372

Passcode: 795774 Find your local number: https://us02web.zoom.us/u/kc1xiBw0Jl

As we celebrate these holidays, let’s resolve to help the less fortunate.  The article below, by Steve Twist and Seth Leibsohn, vividly describes the misery of homeless persons in our community.  The most tragic are those who suffer from Serious Mental Illness (a pathological brain disorder) and co-occurring addiction and homelessness, living in our streets and jails.  Approximately 30% of homeless persons and 30% of incarcerated persons are Seriously Mentally Ill.   

Some are so mentally ill they believe their internal voices and delusions are real and, hence, they are pathologically unable to participate in their own treatment.  Some seek relief with illicit substances, which exacerbates their illness and misery.  To help these Chronically Mentally Ill persons, we need (a) more group homes with staff inside the homes 24 hours per day and 7 days per week, (b) well-regulated and secure residential treatment facilities from which residents cannot leave without authorization, to allow enough time for their treatment to become effective and (c) more beds and more accountability for care at the Arizona State Hospital, including removing the 55-bed limit on persons who reside in Maricopa County.

These three steps would provide better clinical outcomes at less cost than we now spend on recycling these persons through our emergency rooms, hospitals, short-term treatment programs, the streets, and jails, as their mental and physical health deteriorates.

We at the Association for the Chronically Mentally Ill (“ACMI”) welcome the attention Mr. Twist and Mr. Leibsohn bring to the problems described in their article.  And we believe the three steps indicated above would be significantly helpful as to the persons who are homeless due to their Chronic Mental Illness.

Dick Dunseath, Board Secretary of the Association for the Chronically Mentally Ill, and father of an adult suffering with Chronic Mental Illness

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Phoenix neglects homeless, ignores rampant crime in ‘the Zone’ (azcentral.com) published Nov 17th 2022

Phoenix neglects the homeless, ignores rampant crime in drug-riddled ‘Zone’

A homeless person, who was included in the annual Point-in-Time homeless street count, sleeps on the [edestrian bridge, Jan 25th, 2022, at Seventh and Lopp 202 in Phoenix (Mark Hemie/The Republic

Opinion: Nearly 1,000 homeless folks exist in disease, filth and crime. Phoenix is guilty of not only neglecting them but setting a policy to not enforce laws.

Steve Twist and Seth Leibsohn

Within an area of central Phoenix, bounded roughly between Seventh and 15th avenues and Jefferson and Harrison streets, there is an ongoing dystopia. Euphemistically and casually, it’s referred to as “the Zone.”

This past week, an unborn child, at 20-24 weeks of gestation, was found dead in the middle of the street – burned to death.

There, nearly a thousand of our fellow citizens exist in disease, filth and crime. They are “living” on the streets, in makeshift tents and under tattered tarps, amid scattered garbage, human waste, chronic illness, drug paraphernalia, fire and fear.

These are the unseen, forgotten and abandoned. They are the mentally ill, walking the streets, talking to the air, battling unseen demons. They are the drug and alcohol addicted, so desperate for another fix or drink they will do anything except seek treatment. They are routinely victims of both crime and neglect.

No decent society abandons its fellow citizens to live this way; Darfur or Beirut is not our human or scenic aspiration. Not only is Phoenix guilty of shocking neglect of these most needy among us, it seems to be the policy of the city not to use the tools at its disposal to intervene as a force for help and repair.

Drug crimes, assaults define life in ‘the Zone’

Nicky Stevens (left, with MAG) interviews a homeless person during Maricopa County's annual Point-in-Time count, Jan. 25, 2022, near Seventh Avenue and Roosevelt Street in Phoenix.
Nicky Stevens (left, with MAG) interviews a homeless person during Maricopa County’s Point-in-time count Jan 25, 2022, near Seventh Avenue and Roosevelt Street in Phoenix. Mark Henie/The Republic

Take the cases of crimes being committed against those in the Zone. Those living there are both routine and regular perpetrators and victims of serious crime. Not only are drug crimes the basis for regular escape and anesthesia, but sexual and aggravated assaults, robberies, arsons and thefts regularly define the contours of daily subsistence in the Zone.

In its 2020 report, Strategies to Address Homelessness, the city of Phoenix acknowledged, because of “Gaps,” “(t)he result is a fluctuating level of encampments along the streets, defecation in public – sometimes on private property, litter and debris, public drug use, lewd acts, theft and other property and violent crimes.”

It’s only become worse.

According to a recent complaint that area business operators filed in Maricopa County Superior Court, the city “refuses to enforce in and around the Zone quality-of-life ordinances prohibiting loitering, disturbing the peace, drunken and disorderly conduct, drug use, domestic violence, and obstructing streets, sidewalks, or other public grounds.”

So, the victims are abandoned.

People call for help thousands of times

Article 2 of our state constitution recognizes victims of crimes have the rights to “justice” and “to be treated with fairness, respect, and dignity.” These constitutional rights are promises made by the people of Arizona to every victim of crime, rights that city officials from the mayor on down have sworn to uphold.

Yet they have become a mockery as city officials refuse to enforce the very laws that have been written to protect victims from harm.

A model for others? Tempe parking lot will become affordable apartments

In this limited area of a few city blocks, in just the first nine months of this year, people have called the police for help more than 2,800 times. On average, in just a few square blocks, more than 10 people need help from the police every day.

Enforcing our criminal laws when a homeless person commits a crime against another homeless person does not stigmatize homelessness: it respects the rule of law and the rights of the victim essential to natural order. It recognizes a humanity that inheres in certain populations too many of us would, evidently, rather ignore. And these prosecutions can result in services being mandated for the homeless perpetrator.

Actively police this area. Enforce the law

But Phoenix is so wrapped in the dogma that pushes the failed policy of “housing first” and appeasement rather than treatment that it leaves the victims with neither justice nor respect. It leaves the homeless abandoned to the vicious cycle of desperation and misery.

The city has been justifying its shameless inaction because of a misreading of a recent 9th Circuit Court of Appeals case. But that case, Robert Martin v. City of Boise, noted, “Nor do we suggest that a jurisdiction with insufficient shelter can never criminalize the act of sleeping outside.

“Even where shelter is unavailable, an ordinance prohibiting sitting, lying, or sleeping outside at particular times or in particular locations might well be constitutionally permissible. So, too, might an ordinance barring the obstruction of public rights of way or the erection of certain structures.”

Start policing the Zone. Enforce the rule of law.

Start arresting those who break the law. Work with prosecutors and courts to screen for services and treatment. Start with a policy not of “housing first” but “protecting victims first.”

That is what a sane and civil community would do – before it spreads, and before more lives are brutalized and lost.

Steve Twist, a former chief assistant attorney general for Arizona, is the founder of the Arizona Voice for Crime Victims. Seth Leibsohn is a radio host at KKNT/960am and a senior fellow of the Claremont Institute, which advocates for limited government. Reach them at steventwist@gmail.com and SLeibsohn@salemphx.com.

This will be a positive step for diversion and supportive services, but what is lacking is affordable appropriate housing for those with mental health conditions. In Arizona, the wait lists have grown, and even people lucky enough to get a voucher face difficulties getting a rental unit.

We need permanent supportive housing (PSH) to ensure stability and recovery.

—————————————————————————————————————————————————–

Originally posted on December 15th, 2022 Congress Approves the Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Reauthorization Act – CSG Justice Center – CSG Justice Center

Once signed into law, the Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Reauthorization Act of 2022 will:

  • Strengthen support for mental health courts and crisis intervention teams;
  • Provide support for diversion programming and training for state and local prosecutors;
  • Strengthen support for co-responder teams;
  • Support the integration of 988 into the existing public safety system;
  • Amend allowable uses for grant funds to include suicide prevention in jails and information-sharing between mental health systems and jails/prisons;
  • Amend allowable uses to include case management services and supports; and
  • Clarify that crisis intervention teams can be placed in 911 call centers.

The first Tuesday of each month from 4-6 pm Arizona time except for holiday weekends, ACMI will have a featured guest that will discuss a relevant Behavioral Health topic, After the speaker, we will have discussions with attendees on current issues with the Behavioral Health System.

This month learn about ECT (Electric Convulsive Therapy) from Dr. Aaron Riley.

ECT is not what it used to be!

Dr. Aaron Riley is a psychiatrist in Mesa, AZ, and is affiliated with Valleywise Health. He received his medical degree from the Medical College of Wisconsin and has been in practice 10 years. He also speaks multiple languages, including Spanish. He specializes in addiction and psychosomatic medicine and is experienced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, cognitive disorders, and behavioral neurology/neuropsychiatry. He is adept at using neuromodulation techniques like ECT and TMS.

Topic: ACMI Stakeholder’s Meeting

Time: January 3rd,, 2023 04:00 PM Arizona

        Every month on the First Tue, until Dec, 25th, 2023,

  • January 3rd, 2023 04:00 PM
  • February 7th, 2023 04:00 PM
  • March 7th, 2023 04:00 PM
  • April 4th, 2023 04:00 PM
  • May 6th, 2023 04:00 PM
  • June 6th, 2023 04:00 PM
  • July 11th, 04:00 PM
  • August 1st, 04:00 PM

Please download and import the following iCalendar (.ics) files to your calendar system.

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Join Zoom Meeting

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Meeting ID: 863 1776 0372

Passcode: 795774

One tap mobile

+16699006833,,86317760372#,,,,*795774# US (San Jose)

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Dial by your location

        +1 669 900 6833 US (San Jose)

        +1 253 215 8782 US (Tacoma)

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        +1 929 205 6099 US (New York)

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Research shows that leaving a person with untreated psychosis can have long-lasting dangerous implications. Early and consistent treatment has been shown to produce the best long-term outcomes. Dr. Lisa Dixon of Columbia University medical center articulates the balance a psychiatrist must consider in determining the best treatment options.

Laurie Goldstein

This was originally published on October 29, 2019, and it is relevant today. Dr. Dixon Says Going Upstream Is Right but Not Without Risk – #CrisisTalk (crisisnow.com)

Dr. Dixon Says Going Upstream Is Right but Not Without Risk

Researchers, over decades, have found a robust association between the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and outcomes. When measuring the period between the onset of psychosis and treatment, they consistently find that the longer the duration, the worse the outcome overall. Peeling back the layers of first and new episode psychosis often leaves researchers with more questions, including whether antipsychotics are neuro-protective or -toxic, or both depending on the person, and what constitutes treatment. Lisa Dixon, M.D., M.P.H., a Professor of Psychiatry at the Columbia University Medical Center, says it becomes messy. “Treatment marks the end of the DUP, but what defines treatment? Would it include a person admitted to the emergency department who receives two-days worth of antipsychotics but no further treatment? It gets murky, making it essential to get into the details.” 

Dr. Dixon says while recent studies have used a broader definition of treatment, for the most part, the end of the DUP means the use of antipsychotic medication, and what remains a consistent finding is that the longer the period of untreated psychosis, the poorer the outcome over the short and long term. She’s careful to point out that correlation doesn’t mean causation but says there’s no need to invoke causation to justify intervening early and shortening a person’s length of psychosis. “Who wants people struggling with the pain, fear, anxiety, and terror of psychosis without support and treatment? In 99 out of 100 people, it’s safer, more ethical, and better for us to treat the person earlier.” Once psychosis has been around for a certain amount of time, researchers think it can’t be fully treated or undone. Dr. Dixon says that similar to a tumor that grows and grows: once metastasized, psychosis becomes harder to control. This indicates that there might be a critical period where, if intervention happens early enough, it could potentially alter the course of the disorder. She says people deserve early identification and effective treatment that is person-centered and recovery-oriented. 

Early detection is a general principle that’s being applied to many illnesses in medicine and psychiatry, and it stands to reason that for many, if not most, disorders that detecting early will provide some benefits. At the same time, there are many conditions where premature action can be harmful, and watchful waiting would have better. Dr. Dixon says psychosis and schizophrenia can have a traumatic impact on a person’s life, and the early and first episode programs have successfully helped to change the lens, giving hope that people can live with these disorders successfully and meaningfully. “It’s our duty to provide services that do so maximally, but we shouldn’t ignore the potential problems associated with it.” 

Dr. Dixon highlights that going upstream can have an adverse impact if not implemented thoughtfully. In the movement toward early intervention, there is great excitement in the mental health field around whether identification could happen early enough to prevent onset. The problem, says Dr. Dixon, is that the majority of people who exhibit attenuated psychotic symptoms that might precede the development of psychosis don’t go on to develop psychosis. “You can see how it gets complicated. Let’s say clinicians want to offer treatment that prevents psychosis to this group of people, and the treatment has toxicity or is problematic in some other way, and only 20-30% would have ever gone on to develop psychosis. It could interfere with outcomes, potentially causing problems for people who wouldn’t ever have developed psychosis.” 

Dr. Dixon says the objective is to precisely understand the young people who are at risk, not just depend on a phenotype, and offer treatment that could change the development of the disorder. All of which should happen in conjunction with communities, schools, professionals, and families. She says some people may be more vulnerable to developing psychosis, particularly if exposed to structural and psychosocial adversity. “There’s a lot of work to be done,” says Dr. Dixon, “but those in the field need to be careful not to do more harm than good because we don’t know, and don’t have great markers at this point, to predict psychosis.” One population-based approach she thinks is up to meeting this challenge is to focus on youth mental health, including young people who may be having a prodrome, a phase that precedes psychosis. She says perhaps they won’t go on to develop psychosis, but they may have other struggles that benefit from treatment. “As long as what the clinician is trying to provide maps what the person needs, as opposed to what they are at risk for, then you are contributing to the greater good.” She notes that many, if not most, of the mental health conditions that cause pain, suffering, and disability in the world start in the late teens and young adulthood, and not just psychosis, but also depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. “A population-based approach to help mental health and wellness that meets the needs of all of these young people could allow the needs of a larger group to be addressed.”

The challenge, says Dr. Dixon, is there is a fine line between identifying people who are vulnerable and stigmatizing. When talking about young people and early identification, there has to be an awareness that it can shape how they view themselves and what labels they carry as a result, both to themselves and others. What clinicians tell youths, says Dr. Dixon, must be delivered in a way that’s actionable along with adequate support to help them understand what it does and doesn’t mean. “When a clinician says to a 17-year-old, you’re at risk for having breast or ovarian cancer, that teen may begin to think of herself differently. We want to be sure that what we are telling young people about their potential risks is the correct message.” 

The first Tuesday of each month from 4-6 pm Arizona time except for holiday weekends.

We will have a featured guest that will discuss a relevant Behavioral Health topic, followed by discussions with attendees on current issues with the Behavioral Health System. This month learn about Arizona’s Central Arizona Shelter Services (CASS) and CBI

How are we helping people with SMI at CASS?

Dr. Vicki Phillips DSW, MSW, LSW, Chief Clinical and Development Officer

Dr. Vicki L. Phillips, Chief Clinical and Development Officer for Community Bridges, Inc. (CBI). Her career began as a front-line worker and has evolved into a key leader in the organization. Dr. Phillips leads a collection of rural crisis solutions and peer-response models and is highly experienced in working with diverse community stakeholders to build cohesive partnerships designed to meet the unique needs of each community. She is responsible for the oversight of clinical best practices, large grants, and resource development, and housing/shelter programs.

Lisa Glow, JD Chief Executive Officer

Lisa Glow, JD Chief Executive Officer for CASS. With more than two decades of experience in nonprofit leadership, Ms. Glow is a graduate of the James E. Rogers College of Law at the University of Arizona. Early in her career, she practiced law with the international law firms of Gibson Dunn & Crutcher, and Steptoe & Johnson. Working for former Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano as a senior policy advisor and director of the Governor’s Office for Children, Youth, and Families, she was able to see firsthand the needs of our citizens. Ms. Glow recently ran a consulting firm providing resources and sustainability solutions to nonprofits.

Lisa Glow (CASS Chief Executive Officer ) and Dr. Vicki Phillips (Chief Clinical Officer) CBI will talk about the homeless with serious mental illness at CASS and interventions being done with unique programs.

They will discuss:

Whether the demographics of homelessness changed?

Whether they are seeing people with SMI at CASS, and what percentage (can be approximate )?

Have they frequently seen patients coming from an urgent psychiatric center or hospital (if known)

Do they see folks with apparent psychosis?

What is done to try and get them into services?

What type of services is available on site?

Topic: ACMI Stakeholder’s Meeting

Time: October 11th, 2022 04:00 PM Arizona

        Every month on the First Tue, until Dec, 25th, 2023,

      Nov 1, 2022 04:00 PM

        Dec 6, 2022 04:00 PM

        Jan 3, 2023 04:00 PM

Feb 7, 2023 04:00 PM

Please download and import the following iCalendar (.ics) files to your calendar system.

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Join Zoom Meeting

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        +1 929 205 6099 US (New York)

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Passcode: 795774

Find your local number: https://us02web.zoom.us/u/kc1xiBw0Jl

ACMI QR

The first Tuesday of each month from 4-6 pm Arizona time except for holiday weekends.

We will have a featured guest that will discuss a relevant Behavioral Health topic, followed by discussions with attendees on current issues with the Behavioral Health System. This month learn about Arizona’s implementation of 988 (a mental health emergency line).

988 in Arizona– Come hear about the implementation!

Beth Brady is the chief brand and development officer at Solari Crisis & Human Services

Beth Brady oversees Solari’s marketing, communications, development, community engagement, education and culture programs. She is a dynamic leader with clinical mental health, suicide prevention, communications and employee engagement expertise. Beth was a Phoenix Business Journal Health Care Hero Finalist and ranked as one of two top Mental Health First Aid instructors in the state of Arizona.

Beth has been in the mental health field for more than 15 years. She is a Licensed Associate Counselor (LAC), International Council for Helplines crisis center examiner, and is trained in performing psychological autopsy investigations. Beth earned her Bachelor of Psychology and her Master of Clinical Mental Health Counseling degrees from Argosy University. She currently serves on the Board of Directors for Mental Health America of Arizona.

Her clinical background fuels her passion for effective communications, marketing, and design to reduce the stigma of mental illness, promote well-being, and reduce mental health disparities.

Topic: ACMI Stakeholder’s Meeting

Time: October 11th, 2022 04:00 PM Arizona

        Every month on the First Tue, until Dec, 25th, 2023,

      Nov 1, 2022 04:00 PM

        Dec 6, 2022 04:00 PM

        Jan 3, 2023 04:00 PM

Please download and import the following iCalendar (.ics) files to your calendar system.

Monthly: https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/tZIudu6vqDspHdaOPI66YyVO1EYY3UYrWtCI/ics?icsToken=98tyKuGurTotHdKVsx6FRpwAA4j4KO3wpmJegqdcsy_MVXZqezXZZ8d7C-FKKcrn

Join Zoom Meeting

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/86317760372?pwd=MUJLZnl3cTFqSDRrbllmOUI0Sk82Zz09

Meeting ID: 863 1776 0372

Passcode: 795774

One tap mobile

+16699006833,,86317760372#,,,,*795774# US (San Jose)

+12532158782,,86317760372#,,,,*795774# US (Tacoma)

Dial by your location

        +1 669 900 6833 US (San Jose)

        +1 253 215 8782 US (Tacoma)

        +1 346 248 7799 US (Houston)

        +1 312 626 6799 US (Chicago)

        +1 929 205 6099 US (New York)

        +1 301 715 8592 US (Washington DC)

Meeting ID: 863 1776 0372

Passcode: 795774

Find your local number: https://us02web.zoom.us/u/kc1xiBw0Jl

ACMI QR

The first Tuesday of each month from 4-6 pm Arizona time except for holiday weekends.

We will have a featured guest that will discuss a relevant Behavioral Health topic, followed by discussions with attendees on current issues with the Behavioral Health System. This month learn about Arizona’s implementation of 988 (a mental health emergency line).

988 in Arizona– Come hear about the implementation!

Beth Brady is the chief brand and development officer at Solari Crisis & Human Services

Beth Brady oversees Solari’s marketing, communications, development, community engagement, education and culture programs. She is a dynamic leader with clinical mental health, suicide prevention, communications and employee engagement expertise. Beth was a Phoenix Business Journal Health Care Hero Finalist and ranked as one of two top Mental Health First Aid instructors in the state of Arizona.

Beth has been in the mental health field for more than 15 years. She is a Licensed Associate Counselor (LAC), International Council for Helplines crisis center examiner, and is trained in performing psychological autopsy investigations. Beth earned her Bachelor of Psychology and her Master of Clinical Mental Health Counseling degrees from Argosy University. She currently serves on the Board of Directors for Mental Health America of Arizona.

Her clinical background fuels her passion for effective communications, marketing, and design to reduce stigma of mental illness, promote well-being, and reduce mental health disparities.

Topic: ACMI Stakeholder’s Meeting

Time: October 11th, 2022 04:00 PM Arizona

        Every month on the First Tue, until Dec, 25th, 2023,

      Nov 1, 2022 04:00 PM

        Dec 6, 2022 04:00 PM

        Jan 3, 2023 04:00 PM

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ACMI QR

The article which ACMI features this week will tug at our heartstrings.  And it prompts us to think about the intersectionality of homelessness, disability, and mental illness (here, paranoid schizophrenia) and the balance of individual civil rights versus our community responsibility to protect those who cannot defend themselves.   

You see, Mr. Rippee has been on the streets for years. The streets took his sight one night after years of little treatment for his schizophrenia when Mr. Rippee wandered into traffic.  Not only did he lose sight, but he also suffered a skull fracture, brain bleed, shattered elbow, dislocated shoulder, and crushed leg.  He endured multiple surgeries. And after each bout in the hospital, Mr. Ripper returned to the streets. “Health care professionals” drove him to his favorite street corner, unloaded him physically and figuratively, and drove away. 

While Mr. Rippee’s story is a California tale, he also would struggle to get services in Arizona. We have far better laws, but these are overlaid on a continuum of care for those living with serious mental illness that was not designed to accommodate physical and neurological co-morbidities like those that Mr. Rippee endures. My clients with SMI, plus developmental disabilities or TBI or autism, often are poorly served by their clinics. And if the client is a patient at the Arizona State Hospital, their treatment plans simply ignore their non-mental illnesses.  There is no “intersectionality” at ASH. 

It’s time we start looking at the “red” end of the continuum of care and asking ourselves: 

“How would Arizona help Mr. Rippee?”  I figure we can do better than California. 

Holly Geiszl

ACMI Board Member


Vacaville man is blind, homeless and schizophrenic. Why can’t California help him?

BY MELINDA HENNEBERGER UPDATED AUGUST 14, 2022 3:39 PM

California fails to help this blind homeless man in crisis | The Sacramento Bee (sacbee.com)

Mark Rippee, 59, blind, mentally ill and homeless, uses a broken broom stick to navigate Vacaville in the summer of 2022. He lost his vision at age 24, after a motorcycle crash caused a serious head injury. His sisters struggle to find him help. BY RENÉE C. BYER

“I think that’s him,” Linda Privatte says as we creep down Monte Vista Avenue, looking in all the usual spots for her younger brother, James Mark Rippee, who has been living on the streets right around the Solano County Building here for 15 years now.

It is Mark, kneeling beside the 7-Eleven, feeling around on the sidewalk for the debit card he keeps losing. One of the day laborers waiting in the parking lot next door thinks that we must be from the county and comes over to offer his own assessment: “Are you doing an evaluation? He decided to be this way. He decided.”

A lot of us tell ourselves that as we walk on by, annoyed and alarmed, not without reason, that the number of people yelling f-bombs into traffic as they push their carts around and around just keeps growing.

But no, Mark did not decide to lose his sight, along with part of his frontal lobe, in a 1987 motorcycle accident on his way back from a Father’s Day barbecue when he was 24. He did not decide to start hearing voices in the years that followed. He never chose to sleep in bushes instead of a bed after those voices convinced him to tear apart his garage apartment at Linda’s home; it’s just that the walls were talking to him, and he wanted to shut them up.

Mark Rippee, 59, who is blind, rests on the ground holding a cigarette in Vacaville on July 27. He said he needs someone to give him a ride to look for apartments and a job. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

He never set out to burn down two different trailers in her backyard, either, though he did start those fires. And his longstanding “decision” to refuse all psychiatric treatment has been a symptom of his schizophrenia, too.

OPINION Yet the system, if you can call it that, has done everything to protect that decision, and nothing to protect Mark.

As a result of that disconnect, we aren’t failing only him, but thousands of unhoused individuals across California. As is too often the case, his survival has depended on the stubborn heroism of his family, in particular his 65-year-old twin sisters. But his predicament shows that even with the strongest possible advocates, in a state willing to spend billions on this challenge, you can still be left to die on the streets. And most of all, what his story illustrates is why the “simple” solutions touted by politicians over the decades have so far solved nothing at all.

Before Mark’s accident, he worked in construction and loved playing the guitar. More than anything else, he looked forward to getting married and raising a family in his Northern California hometown, where the population is just under 100,000 and, as of a year ago, had just under 100 homeless people.

A family photo shows Mark Rippee before he was injured in a motorcycle crash.

For the first 20 years after the night a car swerved into his lane on an S-curve, forcing him off a country road into an abandoned grain harvester, his family was able to care for him. Even with in-home help, this was an all-consuming effort for seven people, Linda says. “It took Cathy” — that’s Catherine Rippee-Hanson, Linda’s twin — “me, Mom, my father when he was alive, a full-time county caregiver living with him,” plus Linda’s husband and later, Catherine’s son.

After the fires that Mark admitted were no accident, Linda still let him stay with her, because how could she turn out her own brother, the baby of the four siblings? “But different things kept happening, and I could tell that it was scaring my children and making them anxious.” Then he got his own place, and then another and another, finally losing the last one the day he threatened to kill their mother with an ax, thinking she was an impostor who had come to hurt him.

“We called the authorities, and he went out on the porch and started a fire,” Linda says. “He lost my mom as his caregiver. He lost his housing voucher that day, and he got evicted. That’s the day he became homeless” back in 2007.

Linda Privatte, 65, caresses her brother Mark Rippee’s hand as she gently tries to wake him up on a sidewalk in Vacaville on Aug. 1. “Is it okay for me to clean your cart out for you so I can see what you need?” she asked. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

ROBBED ON THE STREETS OF VACAVILLE

This morning, the morning I first meet Mark, who is 59 now — “as mankind measures time,” he tells me — Linda has brought him another new sleeping bag, plus bacon, eggs, sausage and a thermos of coffee the way he likes it, with half a cup of sugar. But first, he must finish his morning routine. This involves swallowing a huge mouthful of salt — “I need sodium” — and rubbing his face raw with a toothbrush. Then he pours a bottle of water over his head and his shirt, which is dotted with cigarette burns.

Mark is not alone on the street, and his friend Teresa, who lives out here, too, shouts hello as we sit down in a shady spot to talk. Maybe to control what she can control, she’s sweeping the small strip of sidewalk in front of her with a broom.

Other people Mark knows on this block beat and rob him on a regular basis, though, and when that happens, he says, he fights back as viciously as possible, because he wants to survive. Dangerous as his situation is, he believes that if he leaves this area right around the county building, he’ll lose the protection of the “force field” around it and will die.

Mark Rippee brushes his teeth at a bus stop in Vacaville on July 27. Blinded after a motorcycle accident at the age of 24, he is homeless and often is beaten up and has his belongings stolen while trying to survive on the streets. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

It’s beyond ironic, Linda says, that “he always comes right back to the county building — back to the people who won’t help him.” Or can’t. Over time, she’s decided that it isn’t really cruelty, or even indifference, that keeps them from doing so.

“At first I was angry with the police, and then I figured out that they’re only following the laws, right? And then I was angry with the city, because my God, this is his hometown, where he has lived his whole life, and how can they go past him every day and not try to do something?” Now, she says, she believes that it’s laws that have to change.

Meanwhile, authorities “don’t even go to Mark when we call. They just say we know who he is, and he has the right to refuse any services.”

His sisters worry more all the time that it’s his “right to refuse” that will kill him. “We’re all getting older,” Linda says. “Nothing is happening, he’s getting worse, he still hasn’t been treated. He’s dying out on the streets in front of everybody.”

The many protectors of her brother’s civil rights are adamant that he should get to choose whether to be treated for his severe mental illness, says his sister Catherine, in an interview later at her place, where she’s long been homebound by blood cancer. But as the result of his illness, he effectively “has no free will.”

Mark Rippee’s twin sisters Catherine Rippee-Hanson, left, and Linda Privatte, both 65, say he needs treatment for his severe mental illness and feel California’s system has failed him. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

Linda finds it harder and harder to get out to see him. Because she’s lost sight in one eye and has no depth perception in the other, she has never been able to drive. And many of those who used to bring her to Mark have either moved away or dropped out of her life. “Some people who took me weren’t prepared for what they were going to see.”

Now, after not getting out here for a few weeks, Linda has lots of questions for her brother, like “what happened to your face?” and, “someone said you were asleep in the middle of the road?”

He’s too agitated to answer, at first motioning as if reeling in a fish, and then as if punching a ghost. “I’m not a game, sir!” he yells at no one, and later explains that the voices are being broadcast from a military submarine. Using “mind warfare” that has turned “almost every single person in my life against me,” the guilty parties are, Mark believes, doing all kinds of experiments on homeless people.

Linda has seen him in worse shape: “Some days he’s so depressed he doesn’t talk.”

But she’s also seen him a lot better, and not that long ago. He was hit by a car in February of 2021, and after refusing treatment for those injuries, he fell and broke his hip during a rainstorm. Even then, he refused medical treatment for 25 more days. But during the long hospitalization that finally followed, he was put on anti-psychotic drugs for the first time in his life, other than during 72-hour psychiatric holds years earlier.

Linda Privatte guides her brother Mark Rippee, who is blind and mentally ill, across an intersection in Vacaville on Aug. 1. “He has delusions that won’t allow him to leave this particular area. It’s all that he remembers before he went blind,” said Privatte. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

“The 8½ months he was in there,” Linda says, “we were thinking this is it, they’re going to see that this is what he needs. Look at him, he’s clean, he’s healthy, he put on weight, we’re talking to him normal.”

But as soon as he was well enough, “they just brought him back in a van, took him out in front of here and dropped him off” in the parking lot of the county building.

Before his sister leaves him, he asks her to bend down, hold both of his hands and help him “unplay” several years worth of the messages he’s been sent from the submarine. “You’re saving my life right now, sis,” he tells her.

IF HE ISN’T ‘GRAVELY DISABLED,’ WHO IS?

It makes no sense that a man as ill as Mark is still stumbling around on his own. So why is he?

Teresa Pasquini, a Contra Costa County activist whose son is severely mentally ill, is well acquainted with both Mark’s situation and treatment in California. And as she sees it, Mark has essentially been “locked out” by gaps that make it absurdly hard for some of those most in need of help to get it.

In his case, that’s because as someone whose initial diagnosis was a traumatic brain injury, he supposedly doesn’t qualify for help for his severe mental illness on a medical basis. (Yes, though mental illness is a medical condition.) And in Solano County, he doesn’t qualify for a conservatorship based on his mental illness, either.

Linda Privatte patiently waits as her brother Mark Rippee who is blind and mentally ill, rants on the sidewalk while she was visiting with him in Vacaville earlier this month. “When he was in a nursing home for 8 1/2 months he made vast improvement. We thought that was our proof that he had been treated with medication, that he had been fed and he had been housed and the difference was amazing and then they put him right back on the streets,” said Privatte. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

Say what? There are two types of conservatorships in California. The probate conservatorship, which is what Britney Spears had, is more typically for someone with dementia, or some other incapacitating medical problem, who needs help taking care of himself. Those under probate conservatorships can’t be put in a locked facility against their will. Because Mark’s traumatic brain injury and blindness are considered his primary diagnoses, you’d think he’d qualify on that basis, but because he’s also severely mentally ill, he does not.

An LPS conservatorship — named after Frank Lanterman, Nicholas Petris and Alan Short, the three lawmakers whose 1967 bill ended most involuntary commitment of the mentally ill — is for someone who is so severely mentally ill that he is either a danger to himself or others, or else is “gravely disabled.” People under this type of conservatorship can be forced into treatment.

Yet though Mark is certainly a danger to himself, because he accidentally wanders into traffic on a regular basis, and is also what you and I would consider “gravely disabled,” he somehow doesn’t qualify for that, either.

Mark Rippee uses a broken broom stick as a cane as he navigates along Monte Vista Avenue in Vacaville on July 27. He has been hit by cars and police have been called to rescue him after he’s walked out into traffic. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

That’s because each of California’s 58 counties interprets “gravely disabled” — incapable of taking care of one’s food, clothing and housing needs — a little differently. In Solano County, a man whose clothing is covered with cigarette burns, who can’t keep housing and pushes around a cart full of rotten food is somehow seen as insufficiently compromised.

In 2019-20, according to the Department of Health Care Services, 1,459 people were on temporary LPS conservatorships in the whole state, and 3,672 on permanent ones.

In an email, Solano County Supervisor Skip Thompson’s office explained to Mark’s sisters that he could not be conserved because whenever he’s on even a brief involuntary hold, he improves so much that he must be released under the law: “This is not a situation that we have ignored, nor that we condone,” the email said. “Simply the law requires stringent standards to impose conservatorships — standards that so far we cannot meet.”

“Laura’s Law,” which provides court-ordered treatment in the community for a small number of severely mentally ill people, doesn’t apply to people with traumatic brain injuries.

SOLANO COUNTY OFFICIALS ‘DO FEEL FOR HIM’

Solano County’s director of Health and Social Services, Gerald Huber, tells me that though Mark “may not look like it, he does have the ability to make some decisions for himself,” and that has so far made it impossible for him to get the long-term residential treatment he needs. Which, Huber adds, wouldn’t be available anyway because even the prospect of funding something like that “is pretty bleak for small counties like ours.”

“Everybody knows Mark quite well,” Huber says, and “we do feel for him. If I hear he’s in a hospital locally, that’s when I know he’s the safest.” But then he gets well, has to be released, and quickly declines all over again. And even worse, “every county has a Mark. Every county has multiple Marks.”

Linda Privatte said that this is where her brother Mark Rippee gets dropped off after his hospital or doctor visits in Vacaville, even though she’s told the social workers this is not where he lives. She says he has been living around this area for the past 15 or so years. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

Vacaville City Councilman Nolan Sullivan, who in his day job is director of Yolo County’s Health & Human Services Agency, tells me that “it’s hard when folks have a TBI that leads to a mental decline.” But no one can say for sure that Mark would not have developed schizophrenia even if he hadn’t had that accident, right?

True, Sullivan says. “But from what has been represented to me, Mark has declined service, and that makes it almost impossible to serve him. I’ve wracked my brain. There have been dozens, if not hundreds of attempts to help him.”

Yet his sisters insist that he hasn’t had a proper psychiatric assessment in years, even when he was in the hospital. After they complained that he’d been arrested for nuisance crimes almost 100 times, police stopped doing that, but also stopped responding to reports of psychotic episodes, so that now, according to Linda and Catherine, he isn’t getting assessed for even a temporary psychiatric hold, much less a conservatorship.

‘THEY SAY IT HELPS KEEP THE VOICES DOWN’

What a surprise, then, when on another visit with Mark, I happen to arrive just as a psychiatric physician’s assistant for the county is giving him his first long-acting shot of Seroquel, an antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia. He screams for just a second as the physician’s assistant, Jaron West, does this, but Mark did agree to it, he says, because “they say it helps keep the voices down.”

“We’ve been trying to help him for some time,” West tells me, “but the county doesn’t have any resources.”

Mark Rippee rubs his eye socket where his eye is no longer visible while complaining that it’s gone but he can still feel something inside. He became blind at age 24, after a motorcycle accident that also caused a serious head injury. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

His sisters are incredulous that he was even briefly lucid enough to say “yes” to a shot. Mark doesn’t think it will help, because “the sounds come from outside the ears.” Still, he’s very interested in the other thing that I heard West tell him, which was, “I’ll talk to Officer Potter’’ — Sgt. Aaron Potter, who heads the Vacaville Police Department’s Community Response Unit — “about that housing lottery.”

That’s a major incentive, because as Mark sees it, “what I need instead of a bunch of blankets is rent to get into a place.” He does need that, and in fact is worse off than when last we met, because he’s recently been roughed up and rolled again, relieved even of his cane, and so is using a broken off broom handle to help him navigate.

But without a lot more than drive-by treatment, it’ about s hard to see how Mark could possibly get and keep housing.

It isn’t that he doesn’t know about or believe in mental illness. At one point, he even suggests that he’s actually a little worried his sisters on that front: Linda “and my sister Cathy have some kind of phobia; they always think they’re sick.”

He just doesn’t think there’s anything wrong with him that wouldn’t be remedied by an apartment and the extermination of the extraterrestrials who are tormenting him.

He describes his life as one perpetual “mind rape, just as bad as a woman getting brutally raped. I want privacy in the most intimate areas of my brain.”

Yet, like all of us, Mark is also more than his problems, and he tells me several times that he still wants love: “I got desire, too. It has to have meaning. It can’t be just any girl.”

As he walks away that day, toward the bus stop where he can sit but can’t board because the drivers have run him off so many times, his friend Jackie Burnside stops to tell me what a good friend he is. “I’m homeless, too,” she says, as the result of domestic violence and other experiences that inspired the hand-drawn tattoo on her arm: “Property of Jackie Only.”

Mark “gets mad sometimes and yells,” she says, “but he’s a good-hearted person. When I’m hungry, he buys me food. Don’t get on his bad side, but we’ve been there for each other,” often sleeping near one another beside the tire shop, “just as friends,” for mutual protection.

Mark Rippee shields his face from the sun while trying to take a nap in the shade at a bus stop along Markham Avenue in Vacaville last month. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

CARE COURT COULD OPEN TREATMENT OPTIONS

People like Mark are the reason that Gov. Gavin Newsom and others are pushing so hard for the CARE Courts that would temporarily mandate treatment for those too sick to know they need help.

Thirty-four miles northeast of Vacaville, in Sacramento, we have many such severely ill people, too, of course. Elizabeth Kaino Hopper, of Carmichael, has a 33-year-old daughter who has been homeless on and off since her mental illness swamped her ability to agree to treatment. Those still capable of agreeing to treatment are the ones writing to the ACLU, she says, while “people whose illnesses are harder to treat are the voices we don’t hear.”

Since April of this year, though, her daughter has been much better, because since her arrest for assault with a deadly weapon — “trying to protect herself on the street” — she’s been living on the third floor of the Sacramento County Jail.

Three months earlier, a clinical social worker had assessed her daughter and found her “gravely disabled.” But when Sacramento County dispatched a fire truck — yes, a fire truck — and sheriff’s deputy to transport her, those officers said, “No, she knows her name, knows what day it is, has a box to live in and a dumpster to live out of — that’s food and housing” so she was not considered gravely disabled after all.

As a result, Hopper was reduced to hoping that her daughter would commit a crime that hurt no one and yet was serious enough to “win the golden ticket to get to the jail,” where she’d finally be treated, monitored and often reassessed, none of which was happening otherwise.

So yes, Hopper is a big supporter of the CARE Court idea, despite enormous pushback.

Critics argue that forcing people into treatment would be counterproductive, a horrible civil rights violation and, what’s more, under-funded. (That last objection reminds me of the old Woody Allen joke about two friends complaining about the meals at a Catskills resort. “Boy, the food at this place is really terrible,” says one, to which the other replies, “I know, and such small portions.”)

No one thinks such courts would constitute any kind of cure-all. But as Vacaville’s Nolan Sullivan says, it would at least open up “some new pathways” for helping in situations where right now, “localities are powerless” to intervene.

More treatment would have to be made available, too, it’s true. Because right now, Pasquini asks, “where do you place somebody who is blind, has a traumatic brain injury and the symptoms of schizophrenia? That’s the million-dollar question. You can’t find a bed for a person with schizophrenia, let alone all those other things.”

Mark Rippee, appears lifeless as he sleeps on a sidewalk in Vacaville on Aug. 1 when his sister Linda Privatte spotted him in the early morning. His shopping cart was filled with mostly garbage that she cleared out before giving him a hot breakfast of eggs and coffee with sugar. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

Sullivan says that’s because providers have no choice but to play a numbers game: “For every Mark, you’ve got 100 people in opioid addiction, so how do you triage?”

But there is at least a corner of hope that long-acting monthly injections, if Mark continues to accept them, could calm the voices that torment him enough to make other interventions possible.

Kate Grammy, the Behavioral Health Services Administrator for Solano County, says that a small homeless outreach team that’s been operating for several years is, as of April of this year, working with a mobile crisis team. It’s part of a pilot program that’s shown a lot of promise elsewhere in the state. That’s the team that gave Mark his first shot.

“I’m ecstatic with what I’m seeing,” from the new mobile crisis teams, says Catherine Moy, a city councilwoman in Fairfield, Solano’s county seat, where she ran a shelter for many years. “We piloted that program here,” starting about two years ago, “and one gentleman who had lived on the streets for years,” and became violent on a regular basis, has now been on medication for seven months, “and he no longer has that situation. It takes a long time, and it’s expensive, but I’ve seen it work, and we owe it to them.”

It’s also expensive to go on as we have been, watching people die.

Mark Rippee rests on the side of a bus stop after urinating outside in Vacaville on Aug. 1. “I would like to see my brother receive treatment for the no fault brain disease that he has. I would like to see him have safe housing. He just needs someone to care for him,” said his sister Linda Privatte. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

Grammy acknowledges that staffing for mobile crisis teams is an issue, here and everywhere. But persistence in offering services makes a difference, which is why some people who’ve long said no to services are agreeing to work with these teams.

Even if those teams expand, laws and attitudes will have to change, too, if we’re really going to reach those hardest to treat.

The definition of “gravely disabled” should certainly be expanded to take account of anosognosia, a condition associated with schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and other medical problems, which prevents people from understanding that they need treatment.

And state Sen. Henry Stern’s important bill guaranteeing a right to treatment for unhoused and severely mentally ill Californians ought to be paired with the CARE Court bill, because what does mandated treatment mean if none is available?

‘OUR FAMILY IS HIS MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM’

After Mark got that first shot of Seroquel, his sisters were briefly ebullient. But then, only two days later, they got a bunch of calls reporting that he was walking on a freeway ramp straight into traffic.

Mary Borchers, who was driving on I-80 toward Vacaville that day, tells me, “I saw a big rig slam on his brakes” on the exit, “and then I saw Mark, and holy crap, someone’s going to fricking run into him!” She called 911, was told that several others had already reported the same thing, and that California Highway Patrol officers were on their way.

By the time she was able to circle back around to see if he was OK, he was with law enforcement who then “left him to fend for himself once again.”

The morning Linda next sees Mark, he’s still asleep on the sidewalk and for many minutes too groggy to talk. One homeless man walking by taunts him — show these ladies your Super Bowl rings why don’t you — and another asks Linda why she can’t take Mark home with her.

On this day, Mark urinates into a cup right in front of us, and never does come around enough to answer her questions about the Seroquel, which most likely won’t kick in for weeks.

Mark Rippee goes behind a bus stop in Vacaville to urinate in a cup and complains there are no bathrooms near where he stays in Vacaville. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

He is able to explain walking onto the freeway, though: He and a friend had been out looking for an apartment, and after that friend disappeared, he somehow got turned around and walked into harm’s way: “I was trying to get us off the street!”

But then suddenly he’s channeling the voices he’s hearing, shouting, “Mark, goddamn you!” and “I turned the controls over to James Mark Rippee!” He is the voices, and how scary would that be?

As we walk away, Linda is crying a little. She always feels guilty leaving him, she says, because “it makes me feel like I’m as bad as our U.S. mental health system.”

That isn’t true, but this is: “Our family is his mental health system.’’ Until laws change, it’s the only one he’s got.

After exchanging “I love you’s” back and forth, Linda Privatte and her brother Mark Rippee embrace in Vacaville after a visit earlier this month. “It’s hard to leave because then it makes me feel guilty and it makes me feel like I’m just as bad as our U.S. mental health system,” said Privatte. Renée C. Byer rbyer@sacbee.com

This story was originally published August 14, 2022 5:00 AM.

MELINDA HENNEBERGER Melinda Henneberger is The Sacramento Bee’s local columnist. She has covered crime, local and state government, hospitals, social services, prisons and national politics. For 10 years, she was a reporter for The New York Times in New York, Washington, D.C., and Rome. She won the Pulitzer Prize for commentary in 2022, was a Pulitzer finalist for commentary in 2021, for editorial writing in 2020 and for commentary in 2019. She received the Mike Royko Award for Commentary and Column Writing from the News Leaders Association in 2022 and 2019, as well as the Scripps Howard Walker Stone Award for Opinion Writing in 2018.

Read more at: https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/article263602568.html#storylink=cpy